30 AUGUST VICTORY DAYStarted on 26 August 1922, with the artillery shooting on the Greek emplacements at Afyon Kocatepe by the Kuvâ-yi Milliye (National Forces) army led by Mustafa Kemal, the Great Offensive ended on 30 August, when the Turkish army won a decisive victory at the Field Battle of the Commander-in-Chief. The victory, which was the turning point of the Turkish War of Independence, is also one of the most grandeur military successes of Turkish history. To commemorate this victory, 30 August is being celebrated as "Victory Day" since 1924.
The Çanakkale and Istanbul Straits, together with major cities such as Edirne, İzmir, Maraş and Antep were occupied by Great Britain, France, Greece and Italy, after the Armistice of Mudros had been signed on 20 October 1922, between the Ottoman Empire—which was defeated in the World War I— and Great Britain, France, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
The Great Offensive that was concluded with the victory won on 30 August at the Field Battle of the Commander-in-Chief was the breaking point of the Turkish War of Independence, which started with the arrival of Mustafa Kemal (who, at the time also resigned from his position in the imperial army) at Samsun on 19 May 1919 to organize a resistance in Anatolia against the occupation. After the victory, the Turkish army continued its advance towards west and entered İzmir on 9 September 1922, following Mustafa Kemal’s famous order given on 1 September; "Armies! Your first target is the Mediterranean! Forward!".
The military phase of the Turkish War of Independence ended on 11 October 1922 with signing of the Armistice of Mudanya, whereas its political phase came to an end with the Treaty of Lausanne, signed on 24 July 1923.
The victory of 30 August also bears a great importance for Istanbul. In the scope of the Armistice of Mudanya, the contracting states (England, France and Italy) agreed to end the occupation and leave eastern Thrace, Istanbul and the straits (Istanbul and Çanakkale Starits) to the Turkish Great National Assembly, founded in 1920.
This year, the victory of 30 August, which made possible the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, will be celebrated in whole Turkey with official and public ceremonies, as always.